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اقرأ باسم ربك الذي خلقخلق الإنسان من علق
اپنے رب کے نام سے پڑھوجس نے پیدا کیا۔انسان کو خون کے لوتھڑے سے بنایا۔
Recite in the name of your Lord who created -
Iqra biismi rabbika allathee khalaqa
Qts Tutor
اقرأ باسم ربك الذي خلقخلق الإنسان من علق
اپنے رب کے نام سے پڑھوجس نے پیدا کیا۔انسان کو خون کے لوتھڑے سے بنایا۔
Recite in the name of your Lord who created -
Iqra biismi rabbika allathee khalaqa
شَوَّال‎ ٨ ١٤٤٥



The first four caliphs are known as the rightly guided caliphs. They
were successors of the Prophet in the real sense of the word. They
were all senior companions of the Prophet. They were chosen by
the Muslims for their closeness to the Prophet and for their
outstanding character. They were humble, unselfish, tolerant, God-
fearing and well-versed in the Quran. They remained in close touch
with the people. They refused to take any luxuries for themselves.
Masters of a vast empire they continued to lead simple lives just as
the Prophet had done. During the 30 years of their rule Islam
made great progress. This period of Islamic rule is the golden
period of justice and fair play. That is why these caliphs are called
rightly guided, for they ruled the people of their time exactly in
accordance with the teachings of the Quran and the Sunnah of the
Prophet. They considered themselves as simple servants of God.


Abu Bakr was a rich merchant of Makkah, belonging to the
Quraysh tribe. At the time when Muhammad, may peace be upon
him, was endowed with prophethood, Abu Bakr had gone to
Yaman on business. When he came back, people immediately came
to him to give him the ‘strange’ news of Muhammad receiving
revelations from Gabriel. Having been the Prophet’s close friend
since boyhood ( born in Makkah in 573 A.D., he was just three

years younger than the Prophet), Abu Bakr was too keenly aware of
the sincerity and truthfulness of the Prophet to have any
However, on hearing this news, Abu Bakr went to see the Prophet,
and asked him about the message of this religion that he was
preaching. Having unshakeable faith in the Prophet, he accepted
Islam without any second thoughts. That is why he was given the
title As Siddiq (the upright) by the Prophet. He was thus the first
male convert to Islam, and was one of the Prophet’s oldest
supporters. Abu Bakr’s father, Uthman, (better known as Abu
Qahafa) and his mother, Salma, had named him Abdul Kaaba,
meaning “the servant of the Kaaba”. But when he embraced Islam,
the Prophet changed this pagan name to Abdullah and gave him the
surname of Abu Bakr.

Even prior to Islam Abu Bakr had been respected for his good
moral character. He was honest and truthful and had good
relations with everyone. The Quraysh trusted him and consulted
him for solutions to their problems. Now, after having accepted
Islam, he began to spread the word of Allah in his own social
circle. As a result of his efforts, some very promising and talented
people accepted Islam, most of whom were his friends. They were
— Usman ibn Affan, Zubayr ibn Al Awam, Abdur Rahman ibn Auf,
Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, Abu Ubaydah ibn Al Jarrah, Khalid ibn
Sayeed, etc.

When the Quraysh came to know of his role in the spread of Islam,
they turned against him and began to persecute him. But he
patiently bore all their oppression, and faithfully stood by the
Prophet amidst all dangers. He spent all his wealth in the cause of

It was because of his sincerity and dedication to the cause of Islam
that the Prophet chose him to accompany him when he migrated
from Makkah to Madinah. His self-sacrificing friendship and his
devotion to the cause of Islam was rewarded by his name being
immortalized in the Quran as “the second of the two.” (9:40)
In obedience to a divine injunction, the Muslims then left their
hearth and home for Madinah. But the Quraysh did not allow them
to rest in peace even in Madinah. They waged many battles in their
bid to uproot the Muslims from the city. Abu Bakr took part in all
these battles. He was always with the Prophet and accompanied
him on all his campaigns. He never showed any weakness, always
standing like a rock by the side of the Prophet.
Tabuk was the last expedition of the Prophet of Islam. He asked
people to give generously in aid of it. Abu Bakr was the only
person to give all he had to the cause of Islam. The Prophet asked
him whether he had anything left for his wife and children. He
replied that Allah and His apostle were enough for them. No one
could surpass him so far as selfless service to Islam was concerned.
Not only was he the first man to accept Islam, but he was also the
foremost among the Muslims to uphold the cause of Allah.

After Makkah was conquered, the Prophet sent Abu Bakr in 631 to
Makkah to lead the Hajj on behalf of the Prophet. Abu Bakr read
the sermon (Khutba) of Hajj.
Ever since the Prophet had come to Madinah, he had been in the
habit of leading the prayer himself. During his last illness the
Prophet became so weak that he could not come to the mosque
for this purpose. The Prophet then asked Abu Bakr to conduct the
prayer in the mosque and to lead the Muslims in his stead. Aisha,
who was Abu Bakr’s daughter and the wife of the Prophet, thought
that her tender-hearted father would not be able to bear this
burden. She therefore requested the Prophet to ask someone else
to perform this duty. But the Prophet did not change his mind.
Thus, in the lifetime of the Prophet, Abu Bakr came to fill the
highest office. This distinction made it possible for Umar and his
friends, after the Prophet’s death in 632, to propose Abu Bakr as
the head of the community. Abu Bakr thus became Caliph (the
successor of the Prophet) by the general consent of the people.
Thanks to his simple but firm character, he was able to lead the
young Muslim community successfully through the most difficult
times. After the death of the Prophet, a number of the Arab tribes
revolted. Most of them had embraced Islam after the conquest of
Makkah in A.H. 8. and had not had the opportunity to undergo
any proper training by the Prophet. Being used to a free and easy
life, they found such Islamic injunctions as zakat and jihad more
that they could tolerate. They were under the impression that, after
the Prophet, God’s succour too had come to an end.

But Abu Bakr did not let the situation get out of hand. He dealt
with them firmly, having chosen the brave general Khalid ibn al
Walid as the commander of his forces. He managed to suppress all
revolts and brought all the Arabian tribes under the control of
Abu Bakr treated the vanquished mercifully. This helped to re-
establish peace in the country. Arabia was brought under control
within less than a year. Later, Abu Bakr sent Khalid and other able
generals on a campaign against Persia and Byzantine.
By resorting to these measures Abu Bakr very successfully brought
about much-needed unity among the Muslim community. During
his short rule, the Arabian army saw several victories. Al-Hira in
Persia was conquered in 633.
Soon after, Abu Bakr took ill in 13 A.H. On his death bed what
Abu Bakr feared more than anything was division among the
Muslims. He wanted to make sure that no difference should divide
them after he was gone. After much thought, he decided to
nominate Umar as his successor.. When he put his choice before
the senior companions, they all approved of it. When all of the
companions had agreed to this, he went ahead with the
Abu Bakr passed away two weeks after the appointment of Umar.
According to his wish, he was buried by the side of the Prophet,
and his body was wrapped in the same old clothes in which he had
died. His rule had lasted for two years and three months.

Abu Bakr had lived a very simple and modest life. He had had
neither servants nor bodyguards. He used to come early in the
morning to the Prophet’s mosque to carry out the duties of the
state and to perform the congregational prayers. He even did
routine chores at home, sweeping the floor, feeding and milking
the goats, etc.
Abu Bakr lived and worked for Islam till his last breath. Although
his rule lasted only for two years, three months and ten days — a
very short span of time for a nation — he had been able to
perform great feats. One of the many great contributions made by
Abu Bakr was the collection and collation of the Quran in codex
form. His achievements have rendered his name immortal.

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